Link words

resultado | razón | finalidad | contraste | tiempo | condición | inform. adicional

Resultado

ejemplos

explicaciones

He was so tired that he went to bed early
He spoke Rusian so well that everyone thought he was Rusian
It was such a difficult exam (that) he knew he wouldn't pass it
They were such frienly people (that) we always wanted to be with them
  • so + adj / adv + that + cláusula
  • such (a/an) + (adj) nombre + that + cláusula (a/an solamente se usará delante de nombres contables en singular. No se pondrá con plurales ni incontables
It was late, so he decided to take a taxi
  • so + cláusula
We have invested too much money in this project. Consequently, we are in financial difficulties
His wife left him
and, as a result, he became very depressed
  • as a result / consequently, pueden comenzar una nueva frase
  • and, as a result, se utiliza en medio de la frase
We feel, therefore, that a decision must be made
  • Therefore suele ocurrir en medio de la frase. Puede aparecer al principìo y también al final

 

Razón

ejemplos

explicaciones

Seeing that / Since / As we arrived late, all the best seats had been taken
We couldn't find a good seat
because all the best ones had been taken
We were unable to go by train
because of the rail strike.
Many of the deaths of older people are
due to heart attacks
  • since / as / seeing that + cláusula a menudo se colocan delante de la oración principal.
  • because + cláusula suele venir después de la principal
  • because of / as a result of / owing to / due to van seguido de nombre o cláusula nominal

 

Finalidad

ejemplos

explicaciones

He came to the countryside to find some peace and quiet
Handle the flowers carefully
in order no to damage them
He chose this university
so that / in order that he could study Physics
He gets up early
so that/in order that he won't miss the bus
  • Expresamos la finalidad (=para) mediante el infinitivo con to y en negativas con in order not to / so as not to
  • Usaremos so that / in order that cuando a continuación viene una cláusula (suj + verbo). Suelen aparecer con can/will (presentes) y could, might, would (pasados); en negativas: can't, won't, couldn't, wouldn't, mightn't

 

Contraste

ejemplos

explicaciones

Although / Even if / Even though the car is old, it is still reliable
  • Although / Even if / Even though + cláusula puede ponerse delante o detrás de la oración principal. Even though es más informal
Despite / In spite of the rain, I went for a walk
We enjoyed our walking holiday
despite / in spite of the fact that it was raining
  • Despite/in spite of + nombre o nominal o -ing
  • Despite the fact that + / In spite of the fact that + una cláusula
Buying a house is expensive. It is, however, a good investment
It's a big decision to make,
though
  • However puede aparecer al principio, medio o final de frase
  • though es más informal y viene al final de la oración
John is very rich but / while / whereas his friends are extremely poor
  • but/while/whereas se colocan entre dos oraciones principales para expresar contraste de ideas
On the one hand these computers are expensive. On the other hand they are exactly what we want
  • On the one hand y on the other hand pueden colocarse al principio, en medio o al final de las dos oraciones para expresar ideas contrastadas. Pero on the other hand se suele colocar al principio de la segunda frase.

 

Tiempo

ejemplos

explicaciones

When / While / As I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident
He went out
after he'd finished work
Whenever / Every time I see him, he's driving a different car
First he closed all the windows, then he locked the doors. Later he came back to check that everything was all right.
During / All through the summer we get a lot of visitors.
It rained heavily
throughout the night
  • When / While / As y after + cláusula pueden ponerse antes o después de la principal
  • Whenever / Every time + cláusula se suele colocar delante de la oración principal para darle más énfasis
  • first / then / later / next / finally ... se usan para concatenar una serie de acontecimientos
  • during / all through y throughout van seguidos de un nombre o frase nominal

 

Condición

ejemplos

explicaciones

Even if you are born rich, life is still difficult

You can borrow the car as long as you're careful with it

You can't come with me unless you promise to keep quiet

I don't know whether you have met him or not

They discussed whether they should attend the Games

It depends on whether the government takes any action

The organizers will decide whether to impose fines

Take this umbrella in case it rains

In case of emergency, break the glass

  • even if, as long as y unless + cláusula puede aparecer antes o después de la frase principal
  • whether + cláusula suele aparecer después de la principal y a menudo se usa en preguntas indirectas with ... or not
  • Ciertos verbos (p.e. discuss) pueden ir seguidos de whether pero no de if
  • Después de preposiciones y delante de to + infinitivo se usa whether pero no if
  • in case + frase suele colocarse después de la oración principal
  • in case of + nombre es a menudo usado en anuncios oficiales escritos

 

Palabras que expresan información adicional o para dar más fuerza a un punto concreto

ejemplos

explicaciones

I don't really want to go out tonight. Besides there's a good film on TV.
We are still waiting for the goods we ordered three months ago.
Furthermore, we have been overcharged for our last order.
This theory about the origins of the universe is new. It is,
moreover, extremely interesting.
The painting is
not only valuable but also a work of art.
She
not only writes novels but (she) lectures as well.
The house was
not only large but (was/it was) also modern.
Not only is the restaurant superb but it is also expensive
They robbed a bank
as well as a post office.
As well as being sent to prison, they were fined £2,000.
They like Indian food. I like Indian food
too / as well.
They aren't very generous people. They haven't got any friends
either.
  • besides, in addition (to that), furthermore pueden colocarse al inicio de la oración a continuación de un anterior aserto hecho. Besides es menos formal / furthermore es más formal
  • moreover puede ocurrir al principio o en medio dando información añadida.
  • Fíjate en los diversos usos del not only ... para dar informaciones añadidas.
  • As well as puede ir seguido de una simple palñabra, una frase o la forma -ing
  • too, as well, not either son informales, se dan al final de la frase para dar informaciones añadidas