Comparativos y Superlativos

comparativo/superlativo | as ... as | as - like | otras fórmulas

Comparatives and Superlatives

  COMPARATIVO
SUPERLATIVO

Adjetivos de UNA sílaba: ... -er | ... -est

kind
big
large

kinder than
bigger than
larger than

the kindest ... in/of
the biggest ... in/of
the largest ... in/of

 
Adjetivos de DOS sílabas acabados en Y y ER: ... -er | ... -est

noisy
pretty
clever

noisier than
prettier than
cleverer than

the noisiest ... in/of
the pretiest in/of
the cleverest in/of

 
Adj de MÁS DE DOS sílabas (y aquellos adj. de DOS sílabas que no terminen en Y y ER)
interesting
beautiful
more interesting than
more breautiful than
the most interesting ... in/of
the most beutiful ... in/of
 
Adjetivos IRREGULARES

good/well
bad/badly
little
much/many
far
old

better than
worse than
less than
more than
farther/further than
older than (para personas y cosas)
elder (personas - familia /no lleva than)
* my elder brother/sister

the best ... in/of
the worst ... in/of
the least ... in/of
the most ... in/of
the farthest/furthest ... in/of
the oldest ... in/of
the eldest
* His eldest girl

     
 
NOTAS
  1. Los adjetivos que terminan en una consonante precedida de una vocal se duplica la consonante para formar loscomparativos-superlativos
    • hot > hotter / hottest, mad > madder / maddest
  1. Usamos THAN después de los comparativos. No lo pondremos cuando no está esplícito el segundo término de la comparación
    • Juan's heavier THAN María
    • Helen is more hardworking than Susan, but Susan is brighter
  1. Usamos THE delante de los superlativos. Y IN después para referirnos a lugar y OF para referirnos a elementos de la misma especie a la que estamos comparando
    • Juan's THE heaviest IN the class
    • She is THE tallest OF her friends
  1. Podemos modificar la comparación mediante fórmulas amplificadoras que le preceden: far, much, a lot o a bit
    • He was much older than his sister
    • His latest film is far more interesting than all the others he has made
    • My house is a bit larger than yours, but we can say they are just the same
 
USOS
  1. Usamos los comparativos para comparar DOS personas, grupos, lugares, cosas, acciones ...
    • London's larger than Paris
    • Spaniards eat healthier than British people
    • Sergio is more enthusiastic than his friend
    • Phisics is more interesting than English
    • Swimming is more fascinating than ski-ing
  1. Utilizaremos la forma Superlativa para comparar a tres o más personas, acciones, ...
    • Who's the most intelligent student in the class?
    • Mount Everst is the highest mountain in the world

Comparar la Igualdad

(not) as ... as
Forma: (not) as + adjetivo (no importa si largo o corto) + as
Uso:
  1. Esta forma de comparar se usará cuando queremos decir que alguien, algo ... es igual que otro/a ...
    • That tree is as tall as the house (Both are 15 metres tall)
  2. La forma negativa se usará para marcar la diferencia entre dos cosas ...
    • Cassettes aren't as good as CDs (CD are better than cassettes)
 
the same
  1. Siempre se usa con the:
    • Give me the same, please
    • I want the same shirt as my friend's
  2. Normalmente le sigue AS con un nombre o pronombre posterior
    • Her hair's the same colour as her mother's
    • I like the same music as you
  3. Cuando a same le sigue un nombre y después una cláusula podremos usar THAT antes de la cláusula
    • He was wearing the same shirt (that) he'd had on the day before
    • That's the same man that asked me for money yesterday
 
 

AS y LIKE

  1. Cuando queremos decir que algo es igual a otra cosa podemos usar as o like dependiendo de la estructura gramatical
    1. Like es preposición - va seguido de nombre o pronombre
      • I'm very like my brother
    2. As es una conjunción - va seguido de una cláusula con sujeto-verbo
      • She's a fine singer, as her mother used to be
    3. As también se usa expresiones preposicionales
      • In 1939, as in 1914, there was a surge of patriotic feeling
    4. As puede ir acompañado de nombre cuando estamos hablando de la profesión, función o uso de algo
      • He used his umbrella as a weapon
      • He used to work as a part-time waiter when he was at university
 
Idioms: expresiones con AS
  1. Hay una serie de dichos (= frases hechas en inglés usando as ... as)
    • as black as night
    • as mad as a hatter
    • as cold as ice
      • as soon as (tan pronto como) / as far as I know (por lo que sé) / as long as (con tal que) / as usual (como de costumbre) ...

Otras estructuras con comparativas

  1. the + comparativo + the + comparativo
    1. Con esta estructura decimos que se dan dos cambios al mismo tiempo (= cuanto más/menos ... más/menos ...). Indica incrementos paralelos
      • The older I get, the happier I am
      • The more dangerous it is, the more I like it
      • The more people you know, the less time you have to see them
  2. comparativo + and + comparativo
    1. Con esta estructura indicamos un incremento gradual (cada vez más)
      • The weather is getting colder and colder
      • She felt herself becoming more and more nervous before the interview
      • We're going more and more slowly